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Table 3 Final five-factor model of the French-language CES scale

From: Psychometric properties of the French-language version of the Coercion Experience Scale (CES)

  Standardised loadings     
A—Humiliation/coercion factor
 #3. Adverse effects on your human dignity 0.766*     
 #5. Restrictions of your ability to move 0.840*     
 #6. Experience of coercion 0.849*     
 #7. Restrictions of your freedom to decide things 0.868*     
 #9. Restrictions of my ability to move 0.887*     
 #10. Applied coercion 0.900*     
 #11. Restrictions of my freedom to decide things 0.876*     
 #14. I felt my dignity taken away. 0.713*     
 #17. I had to obey the orders of others 0.710*     
 #20. Others made decisions on me 0.848*     
 #22. I did not know what to expect 0.663*     
 #24. I could not understand why I was being treated that way 0.815*     
 #25. I could not move freely 0.807*     
 #29. I felt dealt like an animal 0.839*     
 #30. I feared the measure would last forever 0.834*     
 #31. My wishes were not taken into account 0.728*     
B—Physical adverse effects factor
 #21. Passing urine or defecating was shameful 0.953*     
 #23. Passing urine or defecating was uncomfortable 0.777*     
 #26. Having to attend to washing whilst being observed by aid of staff 0.990*     
C—Interpersonal separation factor
 #4. Restrictions of your ability to have contact with staff 0.895*     
 #8. Restriction of contact with staff 0.895*     
D—Negative environmental influences factor
 #12. I feared not getting enough air 0.704*     
 #16. The decor or lighting of the room were unpleasant 0.593*     
 #18. The room was too cold or too warm 0.633*     
 #28. Poor condition of air in the room 0.792*     
E—Fear factor
 #19. I was afraid I would be killed 0.854*     
 #27. I was afraid I would die 0.854*     
Excluded items      
 #13. I suffered pain     
 #15. I was not able to sleep well     
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. p < 0.05
Factor correlation A B C D E
A—Humiliation/coercion factor 1.000     
B—Physical adverse effects factor 0.545* 1.000    
C—Interpersonal separation factor 0.718* 0.478* 1.000   
D—Negative environmental influences factor 0.588* 0.603* 0.563* 1.000  
E—Fear factor 0.353* 0.599* 0.234* 0.571* 1.000
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. p < 0.05
Descriptive statistics of the first two scales and final five subscales Mean SD Min Max  
Visual analogue scale to evaluate the extent to which patients remember coercive measures (item 1) 72.23 34.69 0 100  
Visual analogue scale to evaluate the extent to which patients considered coercive measures stressful (item 2) 40.72 37.403 0 100  
A—Humiliation/coercion factor 22.34 18.07 0 64  
B—Physical adverse effects factor 1.85 2.85 0 12  
C—Interpersonal separation factor 1.71 2.23 0 8  
D—Negative environmental influences factor 3.36 3.62 0 16  
E—Fear factor 1.17 2.09 0 8  
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. p < 0.05