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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects with and without depression

From: Coping behaviors and depressive status in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  No depression (n = 367) Depression (n = 68) Significant
Sex
 Male (n, %) 220 (60%) 36 (53%) ns
 Female (n, %) 147 (40%) 32 (47%)
Age (yo) 63.6 ± 12.7 60.3 ± 12.3 p = 0.043
BMI 24.9 ± 4.1 26.2 ± 5.0  
HbA1c (%) 7.1 ± 0.9 7.1 ± 0.9 ns
Insulin
 User (n, %) 185 (50%) 30 (44%) ns
 Non user (n, %) 182 (50%) 38 (54%)
Smoking habit
 Yes (n, %) 51 (14%) 21 (31%) p = 0.018
 No (n, %) 316 (86%) 47 (69%)
Habitual alcohol consumption
 Yes (n, %) 129 (35%) 18 (26%) ns
 No (n, %) 238 (65%) 50 (74%)
Exercise frequency
 None (n, %) 186 (51%) 41 (60%) ns
 Once a week (n, %) 28 (8%) 4 (6%)
 2–3 times a week (n, %) 54 (15%) 10 (15%)
 4–5 times a week (n, %) 35 (10%) 5 (7%)
 Almost everyday (n, %) 64 (17%) 8 (12%)
Single
 Yes (n, %) 105 (28%) 27 (40%) ns
 No (n, %) 262 (72%) 41(60%)
Living alone
 Yes (n, %) 44 (12%) 10 (15%) ns
 No (n, %) 323 (88%) 58 (85%)
CES-D 10.4 ± 5.1 27.9 ± 7.2 p = 0.000
Coping profiles
 Active solution 6.2 ± 2.6 6.7 ± 2.7 ns
 Seeking help for a solution 8.0 ± 2.8 8.4 ± 2.7 ns
 Changing mood 8.1 ± 2.6 8.0 ± 2.7 ns
 Changing one’s point of view 7.5 ± 2.4 8.3 ± 2.3 p = 0.008
 Avoidance and suppression 9.6 ± 2.0 8.4 ± 2.4 p = 0.000
 Emotional expression involving others 11.3 ± 1.3 10.2 ± 2.3 p = 0.000
Coping dimensions
 Problem focused 14.2 ± 4.8 15.1 ± 4.7 ns
 Adaptive emotion focused 15.6 ± 4.1 16.4 ± 3.9 ns
 Maladaptive emotion focused 20.9 ± 2.7 18.6 ± 4.2 p = 0.000
  1. Data are shown as mean ± SD
  2. p < 0.0025 was regarded as significant using Bonferroni’s correction due to multiple testing (italic)