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  • Oral presentation
  • Open Access

Affective temperament in the general population: The L.E.B.A.N.O.N. study

  • 1, 2, 3,
  • 3 and
Annals of General Psychiatry20065 (Suppl 1) :S10

  • Published:


  • Mood Disorder
  • Multi Center Study
  • Mental Health Disorder
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • High Association

As many others, the Institute for Development Research and Applied Care (IDRAC) has chosen the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis Pisa Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) [1] for the national assessment of affective temperament on 2857 Lebanese adults as part of the national Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation study (L.E.B.A.N.O.N study). This national study includes two components: the L.E.B.A.N.O.N World Mental Health surveys [2] where the Arabic Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2000) was the instrument used for the diagnostic assessment of mental health disorders (Depression, Mania, Anxiety, Panic, Phobias, Substance Use, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, etc), risk factors, treatment, physical condition, demographic variables, etc., and the L.E.B.A.N.O.N-TEMP where the instrument used was the Lebanese-Arabic version of the TEMPS-A [3].

The Lebanese-Arabic TEMPS-A was found to be an easy instrument to be delivered as self-filled or as an interview on a nationally representative sample [3]. First results from this epidemiologic study have shown that the Lebanese (mean age 43 ± 16 years) had the highest score on the hyperthymic subscale as compared to the other temperament subscales [3]. As expected, women were more depressive, cyclothymic, and anxious (but less hyperthymic) than men [3]. Scores on the depressive temperament subscale increased significantly by age, while the cyclothymic and irritable scores decreased significantly by age [3].

Many studies are looking now at the association between affective temperament and mental diseases, and specifically bipolarity [4]. For example: interesting data has been published from the French multi center study (EPIDEP) on the high association between a Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and scores above a cutoff of 10 on the cyclothymic temperament subscale [5].

Currently, our group (IDRAC) is analyzing data from the L.E.B.A.N.O.N study to assess the relationship between affective temperaments and mood disorders, with special emphasis on Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorders. Results will be presented in the 2nd International Congress on Brain and Behaviour in Thessaloniki, Greece 2005.

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon
Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, St Georges Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
Institute for Development Research and Applied Care, Beirut, Lebanon


  1. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Haykal RF, Manning JS, Connor PD, TEMPS-A : Progress towards validation of a self-rated clinical version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire. J Affect Disord. 2005, 85: 3-16. 10.1016/j.jad.2004.12.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. World Mental Health Initiative: Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. JAMA. 2004, 291: 2581-2590. 10.1001/jama.291.21.2581.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Karam EG, Mneimneh Z, Salamoun M, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS: Psychometric properties of the Lebanese-Arabic TEMPS-A: a national epidemiologic study. J Affect Disord. 2005,Google Scholar
  4. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS, Lancrenon S: Systematic clinical methodology for validating bipolar-II disorder: data in mid-stream from a French national multi-site study (EPIDEP). J Affect Disord. 1998, 50: 163-173. 10.1016/S0165-0327(98)00112-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hantouche EG, Demonfaucon AC, Perugi G, Lancrenon S, Akiskal HS: Cyclothymic OCD: a distinct form?. J Affect Disord. 2003, 75: 1-10.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar


© The Author(s) 2006