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Affective temperament in the general population: The L.E.B.A.N.O.N. study

As many others, the Institute for Development Research and Applied Care (IDRAC) has chosen the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis Pisa Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) [1] for the national assessment of affective temperament on 2857 Lebanese adults as part of the national Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation study (L.E.B.A.N.O.N study). This national study includes two components: the L.E.B.A.N.O.N World Mental Health surveys [2] where the Arabic Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2000) was the instrument used for the diagnostic assessment of mental health disorders (Depression, Mania, Anxiety, Panic, Phobias, Substance Use, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, etc), risk factors, treatment, physical condition, demographic variables, etc., and the L.E.B.A.N.O.N-TEMP where the instrument used was the Lebanese-Arabic version of the TEMPS-A [3].

The Lebanese-Arabic TEMPS-A was found to be an easy instrument to be delivered as self-filled or as an interview on a nationally representative sample [3]. First results from this epidemiologic study have shown that the Lebanese (mean age 43 ± 16 years) had the highest score on the hyperthymic subscale as compared to the other temperament subscales [3]. As expected, women were more depressive, cyclothymic, and anxious (but less hyperthymic) than men [3]. Scores on the depressive temperament subscale increased significantly by age, while the cyclothymic and irritable scores decreased significantly by age [3].

Many studies are looking now at the association between affective temperament and mental diseases, and specifically bipolarity [4]. For example: interesting data has been published from the French multi center study (EPIDEP) on the high association between a Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and scores above a cutoff of 10 on the cyclothymic temperament subscale [5].

Currently, our group (IDRAC) is analyzing data from the L.E.B.A.N.O.N study to assess the relationship between affective temperaments and mood disorders, with special emphasis on Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorders. Results will be presented in the 2nd International Congress on Brain and Behaviour in Thessaloniki, Greece 2005.


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  4. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS, Lancrenon S: Systematic clinical methodology for validating bipolar-II disorder: data in mid-stream from a French national multi-site study (EPIDEP). J Affect Disord. 1998, 50: 163-173. 10.1016/S0165-0327(98)00112-8.

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Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Karam, E., Salamoun, M. & Mneimneh, Z. Affective temperament in the general population: The L.E.B.A.N.O.N. study. Ann Gen Psychiatry 5 (Suppl 1), S10 (2006).

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