Skip to main content

Endophenotypes of depression and anxiety

Progress in neurobiology (neurotransmitters, second messengers, early genes, trophic factors, ion channels, genetics, brain imaging) has changed the perspective on psychiatric illness in the last decades, particularly in the field of depression [1] and anxiety [2]. Difficulties in the discovery of susceptibility genes have been attributed to the etiological heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype of the disease [3]. Endophenotypes [14], e.g. neurobiological correlates of depression and anxiety which are genetically determined and mostly stable over time might be better targets for future research and/or treatment strategies. Practical implications of the neurobiology of depression and anxiety are discussed.

References

  1. Hasler G, Drevets WC, Manji HK, Charney DS: Discovering endophenotypes for major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004, 29 (10): 1765-81. 10.1038/sj.npp.1300506.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Klein DF: Panic and phobic anxiety: phenotypes, endophenotypes, and genotypes. Am J Psychiatry. 1998, 155 (9): 1147-9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. J Flint, MR Munafo: The endophenotype concept in psychiatric genetics. Psychol Med. 2007, 37 (2): 163-80. 10.1017/S0033291706008750.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gottesman II, Gould TD: The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. Am J Psychiatry. 2003, 160 (4): 636-45. 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.4.636.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Erfurth, A. Endophenotypes of depression and anxiety. Ann Gen Psychiatry 7, S56 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-859X-7-S1-S56

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-859X-7-S1-S56

Keywords

  • Public Health
  • Treatment Strategy
  • Brain Imaging
  • Practical Implication
  • Susceptibility Gene