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  • Erratum
  • Open Access

Erratum to: The effects of probiotics on depressive symptoms in humans: a systematic review

Annals of General Psychiatry201716:18

  • Received: 24 February 2017
  • Accepted: 27 February 2017
  • Published:

The original article was published in Annals of General Psychiatry 2017 16:14

Erratum to: Ann Gen Psychiatry (2017) 16:14 DOI 10.1186/s12991-017-0138-2

The original article [1] has been updated to include the correct version of Table 1. The article originally published online showed an incomplete version of the table. The correct version of Table 1 is shown in this erratum. This error was carried forward by the production team and was not the fault of any authors.
Table 1

Characteristics of included studies


Sample characteristics


Study design

Duration of intervention


Key findings and conclusions

Akkasheh et al. [34]

40 MDD patients. Age 20–55 years

Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, and Bifidobacterium bifidum

Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

8 weeks


Consumption of probiotic supplement improved BDI scores

Benton et al. [30]

124 healthy humans. Avg. age 62 years

L. casei

Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

3 weeks

POMS, self-rated mood

No effect of probiotic on POMS results. Consumption of probiotic-containing yogurt improved self-reported mood of those whose mood was initially poor

Chung et al. [32]

36 healthy humans. Age 60–75 years

L. helveticus

Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

12 weeks


No significant effects of probiotics on the PSS, GDS-SF. Consumption of probiotics did improve DST, SRT, VLT, RVIP, and Stroop Tasks scores

Gruenwal et al. [36]

34 adults suffering from stress or exhaustion. Mean age 44 years

L. acidophilus and B. bifidum and longum

Pre- and post-intervention assessment

6 months


Subjects’ general condition improved by 40.7%. 73% of participants rated the effect of treatment as “good” or “very good”

Hilimire et al. [38]

710 young adults. Mean age 19 years


Self-report questionnaires on fermented food consumption, neuroticism and social anxiety



Consumption of fermented foods containing probiotics was negatively associated with symptoms of social anxiety and interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. Those at higher genetic risk for social anxiety disorder (indexed by high neuroticism) show fewer social anxiety symptoms when they consume more fermented foods

Marcos et al. [37]

136 healthy students. Age 18–23 years

L. casei

Prospective, randomized, controlled, parallel study

6 weeks


No significant effects of probiotics on anxiety levels. Probiotics did modulate lymphocyte and CD56 cell counts

Messaoudi et al. [28]

55 healthy Caucasians. Mean age 43 years

L. helveticus and B. longum

Double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel study

30 days


Consumption of probiotics reduced global severity index of the HSCL-90 due to lower somatization, depression, and anger-hostility and also reduced HADS global scores. Consumption of probiotic reduced self-blame score on CCL and increased focus on problem solving. No effect on PSS

Messaoudi et al. [35]

Sub-population of above sample of 25 with lowest UFC levels

L. helveticus and B. longum

Double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel study

30 days


Consumption of probiotics reduced HADS and HSCL-90 scores

Rao et al. [31]

35 CFS patients. Age 18–65 years

L. casei

Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study

2 months


Consumption of probiotics significantly improved BAI scores. No effect on BDI scores

Steenbergen et al. [33]

40 non-smoking healthy young adults. Mean age 20 years

B. lactis and L. acidophilus, brevis, casei, lactis, and salivarius

Triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, pre- and post-intervention assessment

4 weeks


Consumption of multispecies probiotic significantly reduced overall cognitive reactivity to depression (in particular aggressive and ruminative thoughts)

MDD major depressive disorder, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, POMS profile of mood states scale, PSS perceived stress scale, GDS-SF geriatric depression scale, DST digit span test, SRT story recall test, VLT verbal learning test, RVIP rapid visual information-processing, PNQ psychological-neurologic questionnaire, EWL list of adjectives, BFI big five inventory, SPAI-23 social phobia and anxiety inventory, STAI state-trait anxiety inventory, HADS Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, HSCL-90 Hopkins symptom checklist, CCL coping checklist, UFC urinary free cortisol, BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory, LEIDS-r Leiden index of depression sensitivity, fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging



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Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Queen’s University, 752 King Street West, Kingston, ON, K7L 4X3, Canada


  1. Wallace CJK, Milev Roumen. The effects of probiotics on depressive symptoms in humans: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2017;16:14. doi:10.1186/s12991-017-0138-2.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar


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